ADVANCED CMOS TECHNOLOGY 2014 (THE 28/22/14NM NODES)
The course has been newly updated to include all of the latest developments in CMOS technology and will be technically current through January 2014.
The relentless drive in the semiconductor industry for smaller, faster and cheaper integrated circuits has driven the industry to the 22 nm node and ushered in a new era of 3-dimensional transistor structures. The speed, computational power, and enhanced functionality of ICs based on this advanced technology promise to transform both our work and leisure environments. However the implementation of this technology has opened a Pandora’s box of manufacturing issues as well as set the stage for a range of manufacturing challenges that require revolutionary new process methodologies as well as innovative, new equipment for the 22 nm and 14 nm nodes. This seminar addresses all of these manufacturing issues with technical depth and conceptual clarity, and presents leading-edge process solutions to the new and novel set of problems presented by 28nm and 22 nm FinFET technology and previews the upcoming manufacturing issues of the 14/10 nm nodes.
The central theme of this seminar is an in-depth presentation of the key 28/22/14 nm node technical issues: CD control, defectivity, high-k/metal gate integration for both gate-first and gate-last, immersion lithography, mobility enhancement, Copper/low-k integration and FinFet, planar and SOI devices. A detailed technology roadmap for the future of Logic, Flash and DRAM process integration as well as 3D packaging will also be presented.
Each section of the course will present the relevant technical issues in a clear and comprehensible fashion as well as discuss the proposed range of solutions and equipment requirements necessary to resolve each issue.
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To Be Announced
To Be Announced
- Three days of instruction by industry experts with comprehensive, in-depth knowledge of the subject material
- A high quality set of full-color lecture notes (a $495 value), including SEM & TEM micrographs of real- world IC structures that illustrate key points
- Continental breakfast, hot buffet lunch, and coffee, beverages, & snacks served at both morning and afternoon breaks
Who is the seminar intended for:
- Equipment Suppliers & Metrology Engineers
- Fabless Design Engineers and Managers
- Foundry Interface Engineers and Managers
- Device and Process Engineers
- Design Engineers
- Product Engineers
- Process Development & Process Integration Engineers
- Process Equipment Marketing Managers
- Materials Supplier Marketing Managers & Applications Engineers
1. Process integration. The 28/22nm technology nodes represent a landmark in semiconductor manufacturing. They enabled a substantial reduction in chip area compared to the previous node, and employ transistors that are substantially faster than anything ever previously fabricated. However, such performance comes at a significant increase in processing complexity and requires the solution of some very fundamental scaling issues, as well as the introduction of radical, new approaches to semiconductor manufacturing. This section of the course highlights the key changes introduced at the 28/22nm and describes the key technical issues that had to be resolved in order to make this node a reality.
- The enduring myth of a technology node
- Market forces: the shift to mobile
- The Idsat equation
- The motivations for High-k/Metal gates, strained Silicon,
- Device scaling metrics
- Ion/Ioff curves, scaling methodology
2. Detailed 28nm Fabrication Sequence. The key to rapidly understanding any new technology is to view it in its entirety. This approach provides a context and a perspective that the study of isolated technical components cannot. Once a sense of technical perspective is established, the student can "drill-down" into each technical area of interest and expand their understanding of the subject matter. This portion of the seminar presents a detailed 28 nm Logic process flow from beginning-to-end (FEOL & BEOL).
The purpose of this section of the course is to establish a baseline understanding of the 28nm technology node and to provide a fundamental framework for the subsequent in-depth presentations on each technical issue. The underlying purpose of each processing operation is discussed and the processing options and equipment considerations for each major module highlighted. Three-dimensional graphics are used throughout this presentation to better illustrate the micro-architectures and to clarify the concepts being presented.
The topics covered include:
- A detailed step-by-step 28nm fabrication process flow
- Front End Of Line (FEOL) processing options and technical considerations
- High-k/Metal gate, strain, and salicide integration techniques
- Gate-first and Gate-Last integration methodologies
- Back End Of Line (BEOL) processing details (copper metallization, low-k dielectric, and barrier layer integration).
3. Detailed 22nm FinFET Fabrication Sequence. The FinFet represents a radical departure in transistor architecture. It also presents dramatic performance increases as well as novel fabrication issues. FinFETs (also known as “Tri-Gates”) are the first truly non-planar transistor and they require a paradigm shift in manufacturing methodology. Their unusual structure makes their architecture difficult for even experienced processing engineers to understand. This section of the course drills down into the details of FinFet structure and fabrication, highlighting the novel manufacturing issues this new type of transistor presents. A detailed step-by-step fabrication sequence is presented that employs colorful 3D graphics to clearly and effectively communicate the novel FinFET architecture at each step of the fabrication process. Attention to key manufacturing pitfalls and specialty requirements are pointed out at each phase of the manufacturing process.
- A detailed step-by-step 22nm FinFET fabrication process flow
- Bulk and SOI FinFET integration
- FinFET High-k/Metal Gate integration
- Gate-first and Gate-Last integration methodologies
- Contact options, including Copper contacts
- Manufacturing issues, roadblocks and solutions
4. Overview of 14nm Node Technology. The next big step is semiconductor fabrication is the 14nm node. For most manufactures the technology of choice at this node will be FinFETs and not Fully Depleted SOI. These devices will be most likely be fabricated using aggressively scaled gate lengths, carbon doped NMOS source/drains, Germanium PMOS fins and Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) and other exotic technologies. This section of the course will present an overview of 14nm technology and the most likely new technologies this node will introduce and fabrication methodologies required for their manufacture.
- Self Aligned Double Patterning and Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning
- Germanium fin fabrication
- Carbon doped silicon source/drain fabrication methodology
- 14nm manufacturing issues
5. Device Scaling. How much life does Moore’s law have in it, and what are the key device scaling problems for semiconductor manufacturing moving toward the 10nm node? This section of the course examines in detail the underlying electrical and architectural issues confronting fabricators and their possible solutions.
- Controlling electrostatics to minimize Short Channel effects
- Mitigating parasitic capacitance and resistances to minimize propagation delay
- Strained silicon evolution
- The scalability of 3-dimensional device structures
6. Flash & DRAM key module-processing sequences. Logic processing often receives the most attention but this perspective overlooks the critical role played by DRAM, and increasingly, the ever-expanding role played by Flash technology. This section of the course describes in detail the key device module fabrication sequences for these two important technologies, highlighting the key processing advances that have been made, and the processing issues remaining to be resolved for future technology nodes.
- The key fabrication sequences for Flash and DRAM device modules
- The purpose of key processing steps and the fabrication methodologies used for these operations are explained in detail
- Future memory technologies
7. Advanced Lithography. Lithography is the “heartbeat” of semiconductor manufacturing and is also the single most expensive operation in any fabrication process. Without further advances in lithography, continued scaling would difficult, if not impossible. However the art and science of photolithography has experienced serious delays and setbacks that have forced the development of innovative new technologies. This section of the course begins with a concise and technically correct introduction to the subject and then provides in-depth insights into the latest developments in photolithography. Special attention is paid to EUV lithography, its capability, characteristics and the technical problems delaying its introduction.
- Physical Limits of Lithography Tools
- Immersion Lithography – principles and practice
- State-of-the-art Immersion Lithography Tools
- EUV Lithography: status, problems and solutions
- Resolution Enhancement Technologies
- Photoresist: chemically amplified resist issues
- Emerging Lithography Technologies (DSA, Imprint)
8. Survey of leading edge devices. This part of the course presents a visual feast of TEMs and SEMs of real-world, leading edge devices for Logic, DRAM and Flash memory. The key architectural characteristics for a wide range of key devices will be presented and the engineering trade-offs and compromises that resulted in their specific architectures will be discussed. The information will be presented by a representative of the world’s leading chip reverse engineering firm.
9. 3D Packaging. Unlike all other forms of advanced packaging that communicate by routing signals off the chip, 3D packaging permits multiple chips to be stacked on top of each other, and to communicate with each other using Thru-Silicon Vias (TSVs), as if they were all one unified microchip. This methodology promises to create a revolution in not only the way microchips are packaged, but also in the functionality, performance and the design of electronic systems. In addition, this architecture dramatically lowers the package footprint, reduces power consumption and propagation delay, resulting in increased system speed.
This part of the course identifies the underlying technological forces that have driven the development of 3D technology, the different types of 3D packages, how they are designed and manufactured, and what the key technical hurdles are to the widespread adoption of this revolutionary technology.
- TSV technology: design, processing and production
- Interposers: the shortcut to 3D packaging
- Thermal analysis of 3D Applications & hot spot mitigation
- Direct Bonding Interconnect technology
- Wafer Level Stacking
10. The Way forward: a CMOS technology forecast. Ultimately, all good things must come to an end, and the end of classical (bulk, planar) CMOS appears to be at hand. No discussion of advanced CMOS technology is complete without a peek into the future, and this final section of the course looks ahead to the 14/10/7nm CMOS nodes and forecasts the evolution of CMOS device technology for Logic, DRAM and Flash memory.
- The two possible paths forward in CMOS device architecture (FinFETs vs UTB SOI)
- The transition to 3D devices
- Future memory technologies: OVM, RRAM, PCRAM,
- New nanoscale effects and their impact on CMOS device architecture and materials
- Is Moore’s law finally coming to an end?
- Future devices: Quantum well devices, nanowires and Tunnel FETs